How Ice Cream is Made

Whether you love ice cream or you’re simply curious about how it’s made, this article will provide you with a brief overview of the process. You’ll learn how air, water, and nonfat solids are incorporated into the mix, how it is stored, and how pasteurization and heat treatment are used to achieve the best flavor.


Using high temperatures to pasteurize ice cream mix has been considered for many years. However, there have been no data to show that such treatment has any adverse effect on the physical properties of the mix. In fact, it has been suggested that higher temperatures can reduce fat clumping and improve protein stability.

In 1938, the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station began studying the effect of a vacuum pasteurizer on ice cream. At that time, the United States was engaged in World War II, and the dairy industry was under a lend-lease program. This meant that milk and dry milk were in short supply. In addition, the staff at the experiment station believed that heat treatment at a temperature higher than 170deg F could produce a butterscotch flavor in the mix.

Incorporation of air

Among the many ingredients in ice cream, the incorporation of air has been shown to be of significant importance. The main reason for this is its ability to enhance volume and improve texture. In addition, incorporating air into a ice cream preparation can significantly change the sensory attributes of the finished product.

Incorporating the right amount of air can produce a lighter, smoother ice cream. It also makes the product more stable during storage. The quantity of air used can be controlled by using the proper recipe and handling. The maximum allowance for air should be approximately 50% of the total mix volume.

Incorporating the appropriate proportion of emulsifiers and stabilizers will enhance the quality of the finished product. For example, an emulsifier is a chemical substance that is able to adsorb and stabilize fat droplets, thereby reducing the number of fat globules in the final product. The addition of stabilizers can further improve the viscosity and tame the rate of melt, while contributing to a well-balanced taste profile.

Heat treatment

During the process of making ice cream, various steps are followed, including heat treatment of the ingredients. These treatments are done to destroy bacteria that could cause spoilage and bacterial growth. These treatments also help to stabilise the ingredients so that they can be used together and form a smooth mixture.

Pasteurisation is a method of heating the ingredients to a very high temperature for a short period. This kills the pathogenic bacteria and allows the ingredients to bind. This process should be done in a sterile environment and using hygienic raw materials.

Heat treatment of milk is generally regulated by most countries. Louis Pasteur discovered that heat treatment of milk kills bacteria that can cause illness. He also discovered that heat treatment of milk increases the water binding effects of milk proteins.

Incorporation of nonfat solids

Various factors affect the incorporation of nonfat solids in ice cream. Some of these are the physical properties of the components and their concentration. Others are the characteristics of the formulation.

Stabilizers are added to ice cream to improve the texture and viscosity of the mixture. They also help control the growth of ice crystals and the migration of water molecules. They form a gel-like structure. These ingredients are generally added at a dosage of 0.5% in a ice cream mix. They also contribute to the uniform distribution of particulates and provide a more smooth mouthfeel.

Emulsifiers are proteins that adsorb to fat globules. They increase the surface area of the globules and reduce the surface tension between phases.

Protein-based fat replacers are typically derived from whey protein concentrate. They are thermally aggregated under shear, producing a creamy, textural sensation. They may also enhance some flavors.


Keeping ice cream at the right temperature is crucial to the longevity of the product. If it gets too warm, the ice will melt and the flavors and texture will suffer.

While there are many ways to keep ice cream cool, the proper freezer temperature is one of the best ways to ensure ice cream remains fresh and delicious. It can also help to protect against shrinkage and re-crystallization.

Ice cream should never be stored above 10 degrees Fahrenheit. The coldest spot in your freezer is the back corner. It’s also a good idea to use a cooler bag to keep ice cream cold while it’s being transported.

Another ice cream storage tip is to avoid the usual places: in the freezer door, or next to foods that smell bad. Smells can penetrate the ice cream and change the flavor.

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